Pythonのソートリスト配列メソッド–例で説明されている昇順と降順

sort()Pythonプロジェクトでメソッドを操作する方法を学びたい場合は、この記事が役に立ちます。この方法は非常に強力であり、ニーズに合わせてカスタマイズできるため、どのように機能するかを詳しく見ていきましょう。

あなたは学びます:

  • この方法を使用してその機能をカスタマイズする方法。
  • いつ使用するか、いつ使用しないか。
  • 引数のさまざまな組み合わせを渡してそれを呼び出す方法。
  • リストを昇順と降順で並べ替える方法。
  • 中間値に基づいてリストの要素を比較する方法。
  • ラムダ関数をこのメソッドに渡す方法。
  • このメソッドとsorted()関数の比較。
  • sort()メソッドが安定したソートを実行する理由。
  • 突然変異のプロセスが舞台裏でどのように機能するか。

準備はできたか?さぁ、始めよう!⭐

🔹目的とユースケース

このsort()方法では、次のいずれかでリストを並べ替えることができます。

  • 昇順
  • 降順

この方法は、所定の位置にいることをどの手段リストをソートするために使用される変異する追加のコピーを作成せずにそれを直接または変更、それは、そう覚えました:

この記事でミューテーションについて詳しく学びます(約束します!)が、今のところ、sort()メソッドがリストを変更するため、元のバージョンが失われることを知っておくことが非常に重要です。

このため、この方法は次の場合にのみ使用してください。

  • リストを永続的に変更(ソート)したい。
  • リストの元のバージョンを保持する必要はありません。

これがあなたのニーズに合うなら、その.sort()方法はまさにあなたが探しているものです。

🔸構文と引数

.sort()そのフルパワーを活用するためにどのように呼び出すことができるか見てみましょう。

これは最も基本的な呼び出しです(引数なし):

デフォルトでは、引数を渡さない場合:

  • リストは昇順で並べ替えられます。
  • リストの要素は、<演算子でそれらの値を使用して直接比較されます。

例えば:

>>> b = [6, 3, 8, 2, 7, 3, 9] >>> b.sort() >>> b [2, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9] # Sorted!

カスタム引数  

sort()メソッドの動作をカスタマイズするには、2つのオプションの引数を渡すことができます。

  • キー
  • 逆行する

それらがこのメソッドの動作をどのように変更するかを見てみましょう。ここに、次の2つの引数を持つメソッド呼び出しがあります。

それらがどのように機能するかを説明する前に、上の図でおそらく気づいたことを説明したいと思います。メソッド呼び出しでは、次のように、パラメーターの名前を対応する値の前に含める必要があります。

  • key=
  • reverse=

これは、キーワードのみの引数であるためです。それらにカスタム値を渡す場合は、メソッド呼び出しでそれらの名前を指定し、その後に等号=とそれに対応する値を次のように指定する必要があります。

それ以外の場合、位置パラメーターに対して通常行うように引数を直接渡そうとすると、関数はどの引数がどのパラメーターに対応するかを認識しないため、このエラーが表示されます。

TypeError: sort() takes no positional arguments

逆行する

キーワードのみの引数が何であるかがわかったので、から始めましょうreverse

の値は、次のreverseいずれTrueかになりますFalse

  • False リストが昇順でソートされることを意味します。
  • True リストが降順(逆)にソートされることを意味します。

💡 Tip: By default, its value is False – if you don't pass any arguments for this parameter, the list is sorted in ascending order.

Here we have a few examples:

# List of Integers >>> b = [6, 3, 8, 2, 7, 3, 9] >>> b.sort() >>> b [2, 3, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9] # List of Strings >>> c = ["A", "Z", "D", "T", "U"] >>> c.sort() >>> c ['A', 'D', 'T', 'U', 'Z'] 

💡 Tip: If the elements of the list are strings, they are sorted alphabetically.

# List of Integers >>> b = [6, 3, 8, 2, 7, 3, 9] >>> b.sort(reverse=True) >>> b [9, 8, 7, 6, 3, 3, 2] # List of Strings >>> c = ["A", "Z", "D", "T", "U"] >>> c.sort(reverse=True) >>> c ['Z', 'U', 'T', 'D', 'A']

💡 Tip: Notice how the list is sorted in descending order if reverse is True.

Key

Now that you know how to work with the reverse parameter, let's see the key parameter.

This parameter is a little bit more detailed because it determines how the elements of the list are be compared during the sorting process.

The value of key is either:

  • None, which means that the elements of the list will be compared directly. For example, in a list of integers, the integers themselves can be used for the comparison.
  • Afunction of one argument that generates an intermediate value for each element. This intermediate value is calculated only once and it's used to make the comparisons during the entire sorting process. We use this when we don't want to compare the elements directly, for example, when we want to compare strings based on their length (the intermediate value).

💡 Tip: By default, the value of key is None, so the elements are compared directly.

For example:

Let's say that we want to sort a list of strings based on their length, from the shortest string to the longest string. We can pass the function len as the value of key, like this:

>>> d = ["aaa", "bb", "c"] >>> d.sort(key=len) >>> d ['c', 'bb', 'aaa']

💡 Tip: Notice that we are only passing the name of the function (len) without parenthesis because we are not calling the function. This is very important.

Notice the difference between comparing the elements directly and comparing their length (see below). Using the default value of key (None) would have sorted the strings alphabetically (left), but now we are sorting them based on their length (right):

What happens behind the scenes? Each element is passed as an argument to the len() function, and the value returned by this function call is used to perform the comparisons during the sorting process:

This results in a list with a different sorting criteria: length.

Here we have another example:

Another interesting example is sorting a list of strings as if they were all written in lowercase letters (for example, making "Aa" equivalent to "aa").

According to lexicographical order, capital letters come before lowercase letters:

>>> "E" < "e" True

So the string "Emma" would come before "emily" in a sorted list, even if their lowercase versions would be in the opposite order:

>>> "Emma" >> "emma" < "emily" False

To avoid distinguishing between capital and lowercase letters, we can pass the function str.lower as key. This will generate a lowercase version of the strings that will be used for the comparisons:

>>> e = ["Emma", "emily", "Amy", "Jason"] >>> e.sort(key=str.lower) >>> e ['Amy', 'emily', 'Emma', 'Jason']

Notice that now, "emily" comes before "Emma" in the sorted list, which is exactly what we wanted.

💡 Tip: if we had used the default sorting process, all the strings that started with an uppercase letter would have come before all the strings that started with a lowercase letter:

>>> e = ["Emma", "emily", "Amy", "Jason"] >>> e.sort() >>> e ['Amy', 'Emma', 'Jason', 'emily']

Here is an example using Object-Oriented Programming (OOP):

If we have this very simple Python class:

>>> class Client: def __init__(self, age): self.age = age

And we create four instances:

>>> client1 = Client(67) >>> client2 = Client(23) >>> client3 = Client(13) >>> client4 = Client(35)

We can make a list that references them:

>>> clients = [client1, client2, client3, client4]

Then, if we define a function to get the age of these instances:

>>> def get_age(client): return client.age

We can sort the list based on their age by passing the get_age function an an argument:

>>> clients.sort(key=get_age)

This is the final, sorted version of the list. We use a for loop to print the age of the instances in the order that they appear in the list:

>>> for client in clients: print(client.age) 13 23 35 67

Exactly what we wanted – now the list is sorted in ascending order based on the age of the instances.

💡 Tip: Instead of defining a get_age function, we could have used a lambda function to get the age of each instance, like this:

>>> clients.sort(key=lambda x: x.age)

Lambda functions are small and simple anonymous functions, which means that they don't have a name. They are very helpful for these scenarios when we only want to use them in particular places for a very short period of time.

This is the basic structure of the lambda function that we are using to sort the list:

Passing Both Arguments

Awesome! Now you know to customize the functionality of the sort() method. But you can take your skills to a whole new level by combining the effect of key and reverse in the same method call:

>>> f = ["A", "a", "B", "b", "C", "c"] >>> f.sort(key=str.lower, reverse=True) >>> f ['C', 'c', 'B', 'b', 'A', 'a']

These are the different combinations of the arguments and their effect:

The Order of Keyword-Only Arguments Doesn't Matter

Since we are specifying the names of the arguments, we already know which value corresponds to which parameter, so we can include either key or reverse first in the list and the effect will be exactly the same.

So this method call:

Is equivalent to:

This is an example:

>>> a = ["Zz", "c", "y", "o", "F"] >>> a.sort(key=str.lower, reverse=True) >>> a ['Zz', 'y', 'o', 'F', 'c']

If we change the order of the arguments, we get the exact same result:

>>> a = ["Zz", "c", "y", "o", "F"] >>> a.sort(reverse=True, key=str.lower) >>> a ['Zz', 'y', 'o', 'F', 'c']

🔹 Return Value

それでは、このメソッドの戻り値について少しお話ししましょう。sort()メソッドの戻りはNone-それがないではない、我々は直感的に期待するかもしれないように、リストのソートされたバージョンを返します。

Pythonドキュメントによると:

副作用によって動作することをユーザーに思い出させるために、ソートされたシーケンスは返されません。

基本的に、これは、リストの新しいコピーを生成するのではなく、メモリ内の元のリストを変更していることを思い出させるために使用されます。

これは、次の戻り値の例ですsort()

>>> nums = [6.5, 2.4, 7.3, 3.5, 2.6, 7.4] # Assign the return value to this variable: >>> val = nums.sort() # Check the return value: >>> print(val) None

見る?Noneメソッド呼び出しによって返されました。

💡 Tip: It is very important not to confuse the sort() method with the sorted() function, which is a function that works very similarly, but doesn't modify the original list. Instead sorted() generates and returns a new copy of the list, already sorted.

This is an example that we can use to compare them:

# The sort() method returns None >>> nums = [6.5, 2.4, 7.3, 3.5, 2.6, 7.4] >>> val = nums.sort() >>> print(val) None
# sorted() returns a new sorted copy of the original list >>> nums = [6.5, 2.4, 7.3, 3.5, 2.6, 7.4] >>> val = sorted(nums) >>> val [2.4, 2.6, 3.5, 6.5, 7.3, 7.4] # But it doesn't modify the original list >>> nums [6.5, 2.4, 7.3, 3.5, 2.6, 7.4]

This is very important because their effect is very different. Using the sort() method when you intended to use sorted() can introduce serious bugs into your program because you might not realize that the list is being mutated.

🔸 The sort() Method Performs a Stable Sort

Now let's talk a little bit about the characteristics of the sorting algorithm used by sort().

このメソッドは、非常に効率的で安定したソートアルゴリズムであるTimSortの実装で機能するため、安定したソートを実行します。

Pythonドキュメントによると:

同等に比較される要素の相対的な順序を変更しないことが保証されている場合、並べ替えは安定しています。これは、複数のパスで並べ替える場合に役立ちます(たとえば、部門で並べ替えてから給与等級で並べ替える)。

これは、2つの要素が同じ値または中間値(キー)を持っている場合、それらが相互に同じ順序にとどまることが保証されることを意味します。

これが何を意味するのか見てみましょう。しばらくの間、この例を見てください。

>>> d = ["BB", "AA", "CC", "A", "B", "AAA", "BBB"] >>> d.sort(key=len) >>> d ['A', 'B', 'BB', 'AA', 'CC', 'AAA', 'BBB']

の引数として関数を渡したため、要素の長さに基づいて要素を比較しlenていますkey

We can see that there are three elements with length 2: "BB", "AA", and "CC" in that order.

Now, notice that these three elements are in the same relative order in the final sorted list:

This is because the algorithm is guaranteed to be stable and the three of them had the same intermediate value (key) during the sorting process (their length was 2, so their key was 2).

💡 Tip: The same happened with "A" and "B" (length 1) and "AAA" and "BBB" (length 3), their original order relative to each other was preserved.

Now you know how the sort() method works, so let's dive into mutation and how it can affect your program.

🔹 Mutation and Risks

As promised, let's see how the process of mutation works behind the scenes:

When you define a list in Python, like this:

a = [1, 2, 3, 4]

You create an object at a specific memory location. This location is called the "memory address" of the object, represented by a unique integer called an id.

You can think of an id as a "tag" used to identify a specific place in memory:

You can access a list's id using the id() function, passing the list as argument:

>>> a = [1, 2, 3, 4] >>> id(a) 60501512

When you mutate the list, you change it directly in memory. You may ask, why is this so risky?

It's risky because it affects every single line of code that uses the list after the mutation, so you may be writing code to work with a list that is completely different from the actual list that exists in memory after the mutation.

This is why you need to be very careful with methods that cause mutation.

In particular, the sort() method mutates the list. This is an example of its effect:

Here is an example:

# Define a list >>> a = [7, 3, 5, 1] # Check its id >>> id(a) 67091624 # Sort the list using .sort() >>> a.sort() # Check its id (it's the same, so the list is the same object in memory) >>> id(a) 67091624 # Now the list is sorted. It has been mutated! >>> a [1, 3, 5, 7]

The list was mutated after calling .sort().

Every single line of code that works with list a after the mutation has occurred will use the new, sorted version of the list. If this was not what you intended, you may not realize that other parts of your program are working with the new version of the list.

Here is another example of the risks of mutation within a function:

# List >>> a = [7, 3, 5, 1] # Function that prints the elements of the list in ascending order. >>> def print_sorted(x): x.sort() for elem in x: print(elem) # Call the function passing 'a' as argument >>> print_sorted(a) 1 3 5 7 # Oops! The original list was mutated. >>> a [1, 3, 5, 7]

The list a that was passed as argument was mutated, even if that wasn't what you intended when you initially wrote the function.

💡 Tip: If a function mutates an argument, it should be clearly stated to avoid introducing bugs into other parts of your program.

🔸 Summary of the sort() Method

  • The sort() method lets you sort a list in ascending or descending order.
  • It takes two keyword-only arguments: key and reverse.
  • reverse determines if the list is sorted in ascending or descending order.
  • key is a function that generates an intermediate value for each element, and this value is used to do the comparisons during the sorting process.
  • The sort() method mutates the list, causing permanent changes. You need to be very careful and only use it if you do not need the original version of the list.

I really hope that you liked my article and found it helpful. Now you can work with the sort() method in your Python projects. Check out my online courses. Follow me on Twitter. ⭐️