無料コース:ゼロからブログを作成しますか?‍?

TIL…

無料コース:ゼロからブログを作成しますか?‍?

想像以上に簡単かもしれません

記事に入る前に、私が製品を構築していることを共有したいと思います。Web開発者により良いサービスを提供する方法に関するデータを収集したいと思います。この記事を読む前または後にチェックアウトするための短いアンケートを作成しました。ぜひチェックしてください—ありがとう!そして今、私たちの通常のスケジュールされたプログラミングに戻ります。

あなたが私のようなら、あなたはウェブとその圧倒的なリーチに興味がありますが、HTMLとCSSを学んでいる情報の混乱にも溢れています。重要なのは、これらの言語は、ワードプロセッサやプログラミング言語などの他のドメインとは異なるということです。ウェブは別の世界であり周りで最も美しいものではありません。

私にいくつかのウェブを学んだので、私は穏やかな励ましを与えるためにここにいます。少しのガイダンスで、これらのドメインはあなたが想像するよりはるかに簡単になることができるからです。読み続ければ、美しいブログを一から作成します。また、CSSグリッド、フレックスボックス、レスポンシブデザインについても学びます。

目標は、私が自分のためにしたことをあなたのために行うことです。第一原理からHTMLとCSSを学びます。

また、Scrimbaで無料のHTML / CSSコースを教え、*スクラッチ*から美しいブログを作成する方法を教えました。ここをクリックして登録してください!?

Scrimba.comは、Webサイトがビデオではなくイベントとして記録され、編集できるインタラクティブなフロントエンドプラットフォームです。?

では、HTMLはどこから来たのでしょうか?

HTMLは、最初のメタ言語またはマークアップ言語であるGMLの子孫です。ミレニアル世代の読者は、GMLがGeneralized Markup Languageの略であると考えていますが、それだけではありません。それはチャールズたG oldfarb、エドワード・Mのosher、およびレイモンド・Lの私たちが今のように知っている作成オリエメタまたはマークアップ言語IBMで。そして1996年に、チャールズゴールドファーブは書いた:

「私はGMLに現在の名前を付けたので、イニシャルは常にGMLがどこから来たのかを証明します。技術移転の醜い真実の1つは、開発者は最初に受け取ったときに研究作業に感謝する傾向があり、長い開発サイクルの終わりまでに研究作業に事実上気づかないということです…」— Charles Goldfarb、1996年

GMLは、後になったSは、このようにSGMLになって、tandardized。その後、CERNで働いていたティム・バーナーズ=リーは、HTの略HTML、作成するには(いや、ない機械学習、または何でもヒップスターはそれを呼び出す)SGMLからMLを借りH yper Tの内線を。

おっと、かっこいい言葉。そして私が理解しているように、それはAppleで働いていたBillAtkinsonのHyperCardと呼ばれるインタラクティブなオーサリング環境にルーツがあります。より深く探求するために、私は次のビデオを提出します:

それでは、要約しましょう。HTMLは世界を引き継いだだけではありません。実際、HTMLの前には全世界がありました。WUT?私はショックで震えていますが、生まれていなかったので、ある種の世界はありませんでした。

そして、HTMLはその前身に多くを負っています。私たち全員が両親と同じように。それにもかかわらず、それは私たちがテキストからコードを作る方法です。ここで、4つの1分間のレッスンで、HTML、CSS、およびレスポンシブデザインの基本を学びます。

4分でHTMLとCSS

最初の1分:WebサイトはWebツリーとしてよりよく理解できます

すべてのウェブサイトはそのように彼らの生活を始めます。ただし、これはひどいことですが、コンテンツはありません。それでも、最初にWebサイトとは何かを理解する必要があるため、ここから始めます。それをツリー、つまり逆さまのツリー*、つまりWebツリーと考えてくださいhtml要素があり、根のに対しheadおよびbody最初のある当社のウェブの

 html <- root / \head body <- branches

The head element (or tag—same thing) is for metadata, or information about our website. The body element, on the other hand, is for our website’s content. And because CSS is our website’s style, it goes in the head element, whereas content, like paragraphs, cat videos (≧∇≦), and so on, go in the body element.

Second minute: elements, or tags, have multiple appearances

valuevalue
  1. The first element is a self-closing element, where we communicate something to the browser, but it doesn’t also have a value. An example of this is the <br> element, which inserts a line-break.
  2. The second element is a common element, where we communicate avalue as belonging to some element. For example

    hello, world!

    is the value “hello, world!” as belonging to the paragraph element.
  3. Last, we have an element with an attribute. And an attribute is what is sounds like—dammit, it’s an attribute! It gives an element more context or meaning. Attributes can have multiple values, and elements can have multiple attributes. Attribute-ception.
value

Now—I need to mention—we don’t create the names of our HTML elements. We borrow them from a list of some 100+ elements that are predefined. Of course, this makes some things easier, and some things much, much harder, such as memorization!

Third minute: How HTML and CSS communicate

selector { property: value; }
    value 

!DOCTYPE htmlHTMLの他のすべてのバージョンになって私たちが書いている指定はとしてHTML5、我々は避けたいです。そして、属性値を持つ自己終了要素metaが与えられると、テキストはUnicodeでエンコードされます。UTF-8の略U nicode T ransformation Fの書式(O)... 8。今、私たちは書くことができます????!かつて、お父さんはエモジだけでテキストを書くことにしました。charsetUTF-8

¯\ _(ツ)_ /¯

またstyle、CSSで使用可能なエントリポイントの1つである要素を追加しました。ここで、は要素をselector選択propertyし、対応するvalueを使用して要素に適用します。これについては、次の分で詳しく説明します。

Again—I need to mention—we don’t create the names of our CSS properties. We borrow them from a list of some hundreds of properties that are predefined. Of course, this makes some things easier, and some things much, much harder, such as ____________!

Fourth minute: hello, world!

p { color: green; }
@media (max-width: 8.5in) { p { color: blue; } }@media (max-width: 5.0in) { p { color: red ; } }

hello, world!

No longer is our website terrible! What we have is “hello, world!” in green text, and if our website’s width were resized to 8.5 inches or less, it would read in blue, and at 5 inches or less, red. Here, we used media queries to override CSS in some circumstance, like our website’s width.

What is a CSS Reset and Debugger?

We use a reset to ensure our design is consistent, and a debugger to expose inconsistencies.

We need our reset, because browsers are opinionated and set some CSS properties for us that we want to unset. Popular CSS Resets exist, but we’ll make our own. And we need our debugger for maintaining our website’s design with ease.

We can make a folder named styles to house our reset and debugger:

styles/ reset.css debug.css

And to link our new CSS files to our index.html, we add link elements:

 …     …

Our CSS Reset

Of the properties we want to unset, here’s a shortlist:

:root { font: 20px/1.2 sans-serif; }
body, body * { margin: unset; box-sizing: unset; padding: unset; font-size: unset; color: unset; text-decoration: unset;}

Ignore line 1. for now—let’s start with body, body * { … } where we select the body and all of the body’s elements with an *. The asterisk means select all children. Remember our webtree?

 html / \head body <- selected / \ \… … p <- selected

body, body * { … } is selecting the body anda , denotes and—p because it’s one of body’s children. This is known as the parent-child relationship, where body is the parent and p is the child. And we tell those elements to unset common properties. The properties I’ve chosen are just a shortlist. Here’s an example of one of the most famous CSS Resets:

/* //meyerweb.com/eric/tools/css/reset/ v2.0 | 20110126 License: none (public domain)*/
html, body, div, span, applet, object, iframe,h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, p, blockquote, pre,a, abbr, acronym, address, big, cite, code,del, dfn, em, img, ins, kbd, q, s, samp,small, strike, strong, sub, sup, tt, var,b, u, i, center,dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li,fieldset, form, label, legend,table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td,article, aside, canvas, details, embed,figure, figcaption, footer, header, hgroup,menu, nav, output, ruby, section, summary,time, mark, audio, video { margin: 0; padding: 0; border: 0; font-size: 100%; font: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;}/* HTML5 display-role reset for older browsers */article, aside, details, figcaption, figure,footer, header, hgroup, menu, nav, section { display: block;}body { line-height: 1;}ol, ul { list-style: none;}blockquote, q { quotes: none;}blockquote:before, blockquote:after,q:before, q:after { content: ''; content: none;}table { border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0;}

Yikes! Back to our reset. At the top we have :root { font: 20px/1.2 sans-serif; }. What’s :root? Remember our webtree? It’s the root, in other words, thehtml element. This pseudo-element belongs to a special class of elements known as psuedo-classes, which can be used to better organize and understand our CSS.

WAAAIT! Don’t we need an * to select all children elements, so their font properties are set? Well—great question—some properties, such as text properties inherit from their parents, and font does. So instead we can set font once in :root, which propagates to all its children. Property-ception.

Our CSS Debugger

A debugger emphasizes the content and border of elements:

body * { color: hsla(000, 100%, 100%, 0.88) !important; background: hsla(210, 100%, 50%, 0.33) !important; outline: 0.25rem solid hsla(000, 100%, 100%, 0.50) !important;}

Behold! In just three lines, our debugger. This clever technique overrides three common properties: color, background, and outline. Our colors are made up of hsla() values, which is short for hue, saturation, luminance, and alpha. To enable our debugger, we link the file.

Should we want to disable our debugger, we can mistype the filename so as to hide it from our computer’s filesystem, e.g.:

Or just delete the line. ٩(^ᴗ^)۶

Our debugger uses hilarious !important values so as to state that under no conditions can these properties be overridden. Remember media queries?

p { color: green !important; }
@media (max-width: 8.5in) { p { color: blue; } }@media (max-width: 5.0in) { p { color: red ; } }

Had we specified that our p color is !important, our media queries would be inert, due to their lesser importance.

Meet CSS Grid and Flexbox

I would argue that before CSS Grid and Flexbox, designing for the web was a hero’s journey.

The thing is, web design used to be a juggling-act of hacks where we trick the browser into rendering our designs. This is becoming less true with time. I’m not religious, but thank God!—or, thank browser engineers!—wherefore now we can lean on CSS Grid and Flexbox to kickstart our design.

If you’re not aware, CSS Grid and Flexbox are newer technologies baked into modern browsers that take the hero’s journey out of web design. And CSS Grid and Flexbox are friends — we’ll use them together to both create a grid and flex elements in our grid.

Our first grid: HTML

ARTICLE

ARTICLE

Remember our webtree?

 body / \article article / \ p p

We’re making a blog, so each post can be thought of as an article. And our articles contain a p of ARTICLE which is another clever trick we can use. Using the name of the element as the value of the element to help us understand where and what things are. Value-ception.

Our first grid: CSS

article { display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr minmax(0, 8.5in) 1fr;
 height: 11in; /* temp fix */}
article * { grid-column: 2 / 3; }

CSSグリッドに入ります。まず、記事を選択し、3つのプロパティを適用displayしました。要素をグリッドとして定義し、grid-template-columns列をテンプレート化し、heightそれぞれarticleを1ページの高さとしてシミュレートします。しかし、heightグルーコードであるとされます削除。

2つの最も重要な行に焦点を当てましょう:

article { grid-template-columns: 1fr minmax(0, 8.5in) 1fr; }article * { grid-column: 2 / 3; }

または、他の場合:

あなたは3つの柱を持たなければならず、その中央の柱はあなたの子供たちを保護しなければならない。

First, had we set grid-template-columns to 1fr 1fr 1fr, where fr is short for fraction-unit, our three columns would be divided in thirds. Yet our center column has a minmax width, meaning it’s responsive. At or less than 8.5in, our center column renders at 100% width, and our left and rightmost columns disappear, as there’s no remainder.

Sidebar: note that responsive design is not limited to media queries. This is an example of where our design is implicitly responsive, as opposed to explicitly responsive. This is the best kind of responsive design, because it’s not hard-coded. And this is one of the reasons CSS Grid and Flexbox are so powerful.

次に、articleの子が中央の列に属していること、または2番目の列で開始して3番目の列終了することを伝えるために、に設定grid-column2 / 3ます。間の微妙な違いに注意grid-template-columnし、grid-columnどちらかに、テンプレート列またはスパン列

CSSグリッドは素晴らしいです-そしてそれはそうです-しかし今、私たちはARTICLEテキストを中央に置くためにFlexboxに頼ります。これから行うことは、ユーティリティクラスを作成することです。これは、CSSを作成するためのもう1つのパラダイムです。ここでは、要素が要素にインラインスタイルの属性を持つことができるという事実を使用しますp

ARTICLE

HTMLのCSS?!(╯°□°)╯︵┻∙┻

Here’s what’s going on: elements have a class attribute. And we can use this attribute to not just write CSS to elements, but to a kind of element or class of element. This means we can reuse classes across multiple elements, regardless of their likeness. Alas—nothing’s changed—we need to also create a .debug-center class somewhere in our CSS. How about our debugger:

.debug-center { display: flex; justify-content: center; align-items: center;}

Note we use a . prefix to differentiate classes from elements.

Now, wherever an element is attributed with our debug-center class, its text will center. First, we set display to flex making whichever element a Flexbox-element as opposed to a CSS Grid-element. Then we set justify-content to center to center horizontally and align-items to center to center vertically. Aaagh!

Imagine this: we use Grid to layout our website’s design, and Flexbox to flex the elements in our grid to some desired position.

Iterating our grid

We have a problem: without .debug-centerARTICLE hugs the left and right walls. What we need are vertical and horizontal gutters so that our content can breathe. Aaah. Otherwise reading would become frustrating and would lead to a poor user experience. ヾ( •́д•̀ ;)ノ

For vertical padding:

article { padding: 0.5in 0; …}

And for horizontal padding, we could use padding, and either would work:

padding: 0.5in 0.5in;padding: 0.5in;

However, we want our gutters to be responsive, so we’ll use CSS Grid:

article { … grid-template-columns: 1fr 0.5in [start] 7.5in [end] 0.5in 1fr}

Here, we did three things: 1. we defined our horizontal gutters to be 0.5in (these will become responsive—I promise!). 2. our content-column went from 8.5in to 7.5in, the sum still being 8.5in , and 3. made up identifiers start and end to name the start and end of our content-column.

When we added new columns, we needed to also update article *:

article * { grid-column: 3 / 4; }

But counting columns isn’t ideal. Instead—let’s use our made-up identifiers:

article * { grid-column: start / end; }

Weupdated our grid without breaking the flow of content, so long as we continue to use the start and end identifiers we made up. ⊂◉‿◉つ

Last—as promised—we need our gutters to be responsive. minmax() for one reason or another doesn’t work here, so we’ll use media queries:

@media (max-width: 8.5in) { article { grid-template-columns: 1fr 5% [start] 90% [end] 5% 1fr; }}

Nowat or less than8.5in, article will use % instead of in to divide our columns, and the left and rightmost columns will disappear because—again—there’s no remainder. Despite all this, we could’ve set padding to 0.5in 5% to achieve the same effect, so what gives? Read on!

Iterating our grid, again

To understand our grid, let’s use images to span columns, from 100% to 8.5in to 7.5in on desktop, and from 100% to 90% on mobile. However, for the last image, the one on the left at the bottom, we need to add even few more columns to our grid. AF)UBQWF*VBQPWIFB, am I right?

Don’t be intimidated—CSS grid is awesome. Let’s add two more columns:

article { … grid-template-columns: 1fr 0.5in [start] 1.25in 5in 1.25in [end] 0.5in 1fr;}
@media (max-width: 8.5in) { article { grid-template-columns: 1fr 5% [start] 15% 60% 15%[end] 5% 1fr; }}

We broke up our content-column into three columns: 1.25in 5in 1.25in . We also added proportional percents for our media query: 15% 60% 15%. The plan is for text to span our original 7.5in content-column, and for small images to span our new 5in column.

To add images, we use the img element and its src—source—attribute:

 …    …

These are local, that is, they’re on our computer. And were they remote, that is, on a server:

Note that each img has one of four classes: size-*. And because we’ll want more than images, like videos, to span our website’s grid, it’s preferred we use classes so we can reuse the CSS. These size-* classes are also Utility Classes, so changing which size we want is simple.

Let’s make our size-* classes span different sets of columns:

.size-1 { grid-column: 4 / 5; }.size-2 { grid-column: 3 / 6; }.size-3 { grid-column: 2 / 7; }.size-4 { grid-column: 1 / 8; }

What’s missing is that our imgs aren’t responsive. We need:

img.size-1, img.size-2, img.size-3, img.size-4 { width: 100%; }

Because imgs render at their actual size, for example, a 400 × 400 image rendering at 400px, we needed to override that behavior with our own: width: 100%. Thus when an image is attributed with a size-* class, it can resize to whatever columns it’s spanning. Note we need not set height.

Adding text elements

Website and content links

Now that we’re getting serious with our article, let’s make things formal:

 …  …

Now each article is linkable. Linkable? Well—websites are links:

//website.com/index.html

And our website’s content, for example articles, can be linked to, too:

//website.com/index.html#article

Here article is the value of an id attribute, analogous to linking a timestamp in a YouTube video (for example, this one). Better than suggesting “start at 4 minutes and 7 seconds” or “read from the second article,” we can link content in our website, like a timestamp in a video.

To link a website or content, we use the a element and href attribute:

 …  The Cosmos  …

The text “The Cosmos” now links the start of the article: #the-cosmos.

This idea of linking (linking websites and content in websites) is one of the points of HTML. HyperCard mastered this, but instead of linking websites and content, was interested in ideas and associations. At the time, it was 1987 and HTML was first proposed in 1989. Watch a few seconds from the video I posted earlier—here I’ve linked a timestamp:

Text elements

Let’s add headings, a publication-date, strong and emphasized text, and links:

The Cosmos is all there is

Or ever was, or ever will be

 MAR. 9, 2014 

A generation ago, the astronomer Carl Sagan stood here and launched hundreds of millions of us on a great adventure the exploration of the universe revealed by science. It's time to get going again. We're about to begin a journey that will take us from the infinitesimal to the infinite, from the dawn of time to the distant future. We'll explore galaxies and suns and worlds, surf the gravity waves of space-time, encounter beings that live in fire and ice, explore the planets of stars that never die, discover atoms as massive as suns and universes smaller than atoms.

COSMOS IS ALSO A STORY ABOUT US

It's the saga of how wandering bands of hunters and gatherers found their way to the stars, one adventure with many heroes. To make this journey, we'll need imagination. But imagination alone is not enough because the reality of nature is far more wondrous than anything we can imagine. This adventure is made possible by generations of searchers strictly adhering to a simple set of rules test ideas by experiment and observation, build on those ideas that pass the test, reject the ones that fail, follow the evidence wherever it leads and question everything. Accept these terms, and the cosmos is yours.

These are the opening lines to our personal astrophysicist’s — Neil deGrasse Tyson’s — 2014 Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, a reimagining of Carl Sagan’s original 1980 Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. It’s sci-fi without the -fi. And it’s getting renewed in 2019!

Above we introduced a few elements: h1, h2, h3, time, strong, and em.

  1. h1h6 elements are headlines.
  2. The time element timestamps our article. We can put whatever we want for the element value, because computers read the datetime attribute’s value, which should be machine-readable.
  3. The strong element is for strong text and the em element is for emphasized text. Also, h* elements are strong.

Note that h* and p elements break from one line to the next, or block, whereas time, strong, and em elements don’t. This is because browsers set the h* and p element’s display to block, and the time, strong, and em element’s display to inline.

Rems and ems

When it’s not enough to block elements from one line to the next, we use line-breaks so it’s easier to differentiate elements from one another, not unlike padding or gutters. We could use br elements here, but it’s preferred we use extraneous CSS over extraneous HTML.

Here’s how to push content two line-breaks, following h2 and p elements:

h2, p { margin-bottom: 2.4rem; }

2.4rem?

Remember our reset? We set font to 20px/1.2 sans-serif. I didn’t explain it at the time—and shame on me—but 2.4 is two-line breaks at 1.2 line-height, for example, single-spaced text. More readable text could be 1.5, and double-spaced text could be 2.

*Ahem* What are rems?

*Ahem ahem* And what are ems?

rem is rootem and both are multipliers. 1rem is 20px and 1em is the parent’s font-size. Had we defined our line-breaks in ems, not rems, and set h2 and p to different font-sizes, their line-breaks would differ! Therefore, consistent line-breaks use rems and inconsistent ones use ems.

そして、これは強力なアイデアです。デザインが接続されるようにCSSを作成します。この悟りを考えると、私はそれがはるかに賢明だと感じていますCSSについては、ルールではなく関係について考えてくださいしたがって、どこかで変更を加えると、どこでも変更を加えることができます。

…どこかで変更を加える……どこでも変更を加える…

レスポンシブレスポンシブデザイン

CSSをremsとemsで記述し、メディアクエリを使用して:root'sを変更するとfont-sizeどうなりますか?そして、すべてのもの-とI平均everything-比例サイズが変更されます。さらに一歩進んで、複数の幅に対して複数のメディアクエリを実行できます。

@media (max-width: 8.5in) { :root { font-size: 18px; } }@media (max-width: 5.0in) { :root { font-size: 16px; } }

これについて驚くべきことは、私たちが単にオーバーライドしているのではないということですプロパティ我々は上書きされているのプロパティ秒と秒。これで、レスポンシブだけでなく、レスポンシブデザインに対応するCSSを作成できます。これはおそらく、この投稿全体で最も重要な文です。remem

レスポンシブだけでなく、レスポンシブデザインに対応するCSSを作成できます。

これは、それがどのように我々はだ、ただクールではないはずCSSを記述すること。ウェブサイトはひどい傾向があり、それはこれに要約できると思います。CSSを書くときは、サイロコードではなくデザインシステムで書くべきですremsとemsをメディアクエリと組み合わせて使用する場合、それ設計システムであり、コードはサイロ化されません。

テキストのスタイリング

スタイルを愛するために、いくつか追加しましょう:

h1 { font: 700 2.0rem/1.2 …; color: hsl(000, 000%, 33%); }h2 { font: 400 1.5rem/1.2 …; color: hsl(000, 000%, 33%); }time { font: 700 1.0rem/1.2 …; color: hsl(250, 100%, 83%); }h3 { font: 700 1.0rem/1.2 …; color: hsl(250, 100%, 67%); }p { font: 400 1.0rem/1.5 …; color: hsl(000, 000%, 33%); }

Properties can have shorthands as we’ve seen before; padding: 0.5in, equivalent to padding: 0.5in 0.5in. And here, we use font to combine font-weight, font-size, and line-height. After font, we have color with hsl values, like hsla values in our debugger.

An unaddressed problem is our a element. In our reset, we unset color and text-decoration making links indiscriminate from text. We unset these properties because text-decoration: underline is too subtle. So here’s how we can give them a strong underline:

a { box-shadow: inset 0 -0.25em hsl(55, 100%, 75%); }

We invert box-shadow to create an underline that is inside the element. Had we set inset without a negative value, our underline would be an overline. We also use em so the underline scales with its font-size. This is an example of when we want inconsistent scaling, as supposed to our line-breaks.

There’s much more to box-shadow than this: click to learn more.

Last step: gradients

Wohoo! All we need is a cue for our readers as to where an article starts and ends. Without that, the ends of each article will feel like an endless continuation, which leads to a poor user-experience. So we need to give our readers a hint… (◔̯◔)

What I propose is simple: a gradient that extends from the top of each article to the bottom of its h2 element. And we can write our gradient in ems so that as our website resizes, so does our gradient:

article { … background: linear-gradient(hsl(55, 100%, 96%), white 6.83em);}

Here we’ve defined a color-to-white gradient, and used 6.83em so our gradient doesn’t extend the entire article but ends at the equivalent of the bottom of our h2 element. However, the exact value depends.

You can either do math to determine the size, for example 6.83em, but another technique is to set a size on the top-color, for example hsl(55, 100%, 96%) 6.83em. Once it’s equal to or greater than the bottom color’s size, it will appear as a line and not a gradient, making it intuitive what to change it to.

Congratulations ?

Congratulations! ٩(˘.˘)۶ You’ve stepped into a world in desperate need of better designers and engineers. And with CSS Grid, Flexbox, Responsive Design and browser-level debuggers, developing for the web has never been more accessible.

Don’t forget there’s a free course on Scrimba where I teach how to make the same website from *scratch*. Click here to enroll!